We all know the conventional method goods get processed and shipped across the globe, which is moving a good from a producer to the seller and ultimately arriving at the end user. We call this process the ‘supply chain’. In actuality, this process is in fact not quite a chain at all. Its procedures may […]
Internet Backbone It’s fair to say that most people without a deep understanding of networking probably consider the internet to be a globally decentralized network, which is a reasonable assumption though incorrect. Thousands of internet service providers and telephone companies globally all vying to offer connectivity to householders and end-users give the illusion of a […]
Blockchain is often referred to as the next big thing, probably the most promising technology of the near-term future. It is undeniable that distributed ledger technology is sprouting up in an incredible number of industries in some obvious and not-so-obvious implementations. But how are countries and governments worldwide welcoming the change? Are governing bodies even […]
How Does Casper FFG work? How Does Ethereum 2.0 Integrate Casper FFG?
Foreword In 2017, Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith jointly published Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget (Casper FFG). Casper FFG is a PBFT-inspired and improved consensus protocol. Although it is designed to be simple, its proof of security is not easy. With this article, you will get a glimpse of the problems and design concepts that […]
Blockchain is promising to do for value what the internet has done for information. Blockchain technology enables the facilitation of trust in an environment where individuals can securely reach consensus on a transaction’s validity, regardless of whether or not said individuals have a pre-existing relationship. For these reasons, blockchain is the technology best poised to […]
What is data protection and why do we care? I believe if I say “Cambridge Analytica”, or “Facebook user data breach scandal” a lamp will light up in your head. In a nutshell, and particularly as a consequence of the data theft scandal undergone by Facebook in early 2018, the topic of the role of […]
What are the properties of PBFT? Can cryptocurrencies be implemented on PBFT? (Part 2 on Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerence)
Foreword In the previous article, we provided an introduction to the process by which PBFT works. But now, how do we know whether it is really efficient (and effective)? The two main concepts that shall be studied in order to answer this question are safety and liveness. How does PBFT ensure that both safety and […]
What is PBFT and what are its main characteristics? Can cryptocurrencies be implemented on PBFT?
In this article, we want to introduce a long-lasting classic: Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, or PBFT for short. PBFT has already been in existence for over 20 years now, and its birth traces back to the well-known consensus problem in decentralized systems commonly known as the Byzantine Generals Problem. PBFT is not a consensus protocol […]
Decentralized IDs have the potential to help internet users around the world wrest back control of their data from the corporations that presently control it.
Why Decentralized IDs matter Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) have recently gained more attention for being one of blockchain’s most exciting use cases, and the hype is well founded. In concept, DIDs aim to use cutting-edge cryptography and unique identifiers to enable users to validate themselves online, while still dictating when and how that identity data is […]
“It is fair to say that today’s Internet, absent a native identity layer, is based on a patchwork of identity one-offs.” – Kim Cameron, former Architect of Identity at Microsoft The right to identity is a fundamental human right that exists from the moment we are born and lasts for life. This right is recognized […]