Scalability Magic: BLS Signatures

Blockchain Scalability Blockchain scalability has likely been one of the most researched topics in crypto environments in the past few years. Regardless of their involvement in the crypto world, almost everyone at this stage is aware of the ridiculously low amount of transactions processed per second of Bitcoin with respect to VISA for example. To […]

Casper FFG: Consensus Protocol for the Realization of Proof-of-Stake

How Does Casper FFG work? How Does Ethereum 2.0 Integrate Casper FFG?

Foreword In 2017, Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith jointly published Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget (Casper FFG). Casper FFG is a PBFT-inspired and improved consensus protocol. Although it is designed to be simple, its proof of security is not easy. With this article, you will get a glimpse of the problems and design concepts that […]

PBFT vs Nakamoto Consensus — Which One is Better?

What are the properties of PBFT? Can cryptocurrencies be implemented on PBFT? (Part 2 on Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerence)

Foreword In the previous article, we provided an introduction to the process by which PBFT works. But now, how do we know whether it is really efficient (and effective)? The two main concepts that shall be studied in order to answer this question are safety and liveness. How does PBFT ensure that both safety and […]

An Introduction to Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance

What is PBFT and what are its main characteristics? Can cryptocurrencies be implemented on PBFT?

In this article, we want to introduce a long-lasting classic: Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, or PBFT for short. PBFT has already been in existence for over 20 years now, and its birth traces back to the well-known consensus problem in decentralized systems commonly known as the Byzantine Generals Problem. PBFT is not a consensus protocol […]

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