An Introduction to Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance

What is PBFT and what are its main characteristics? Can cryptocurrencies be implemented on PBFT?

In this article, we want to introduce a long-lasting classic: Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, or PBFT for short. PBFT has already been in existence for over 20 years now, and its birth traces back to the well-known consensus problem in decentralized systems commonly known as the Byzantine Generals Problem. PBFT is not a consensus protocol […]

Creating Unpredictability:

Random Number Generator Use Cases

“Anyone who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin. For, as has been pointed out several times, there is no such thing as a random number — there are only methods to produce random numbers.” – John Von Neumann Random number generators (RNGs) are a crucial part of many […]

Decentralized ID: Bridging Legal and Digital Identities

“It is fair to say that today’s Internet, absent a native identity layer, is based on a patchwork of identity one-offs.” – Kim Cameron, former Architect of Identity at Microsoft The right to identity is a fundamental human right that exists from the moment we are born and lasts for life. This right is recognized […]

A Brief History of Random (In)security

Random Number Generator Hacks and Exploits

Most software and operating systems use random numbers for security processes. And because software is often built with cost and speed in mind, developers tend to use pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) to create cryptographic keys and other system encryptions. PRNGs are algorithms that use mathematical formulas or precalculated tables to produce sequences of seemingly random […]

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